Original short articles introduce the arts, science, math, publications, and teacher resources related to the Transit of Venus.  Be sure to click the individual menu items in the hydrochlorothiazide cialis navigation bar, left, for many external links related to these topics. 

Sousa Composes Transit of Venus March & Novel

 Sheet music 
(piccolo) for Sousa's Transit of Venus MarchCover of Sousa's 
Transit of Venus MarchAmerican bandmaster John Philip Sousa originally composed a spirited Transit of Venus March for the unveiling ceremony of the statue of Joseph Henry, the first Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.  The ceremony had been planned to cialis generica occur before the 1882 transit, but didn't actually happen until April 19, 1883.  Henry, whose statue is now in front of the Smithsonian "Castle" in Washington, D.C., was on the U.S. Transit of Venus Commission.

Images: Library of Congress, Music Division.

Illustration from 
Sousa's Cover of Sousa's 1920 Novel Decades later, Sousa also penned a 1920 novel,Transit of Venus about a fictional voyage by a group of misogynists who embark to photograph a transit of order propecia now Venus.  Known as the Alimony Club, they purport to have disdain for women, until the ship's captain reveals a hidden passenger--his niece Miranda.

Images: Chuck Bueter


Create Your Own Stained Glass Window

Pattern for stained glass windowStained glass celebrates fellow parishioner Jeremiah HorrocksJeremiah Horrocks was the cheap viagra from uk first person to record a transit of Venus.  Fellow parishioners of St. Michael Church in Hoole, England, have celebrated his 1639 achievement and levitra china the ensuing transits ever since.

In this activity you create your own stained glass window with words and images to commemorate the transit of Venus. 

Read more: Create Your Own Stained Glass Window


Links: Science & Math

Mathematical Problems Featuring Transit Applications, by Dr. Sten Odenwald.http://sunearthday.nasa.gov/2012/articles/ttt_75.php
Mathematical Problems Featuring Transit Applications, by Dr. Sten Odenwald.  Transit Math book from NASA opens with dozens of math problems and answers related to eclipses, transits, and occultations, with an emphasis on transits of Venus through the centuries.  Problems align with AAAS Project: 2061 Benchmarks as detailed in a Mathematics Topic Matrix. The PDF document includes summaries of the historic aspects of the transit and a diverse collection of modern images and historic images alike.  Stated emphasis for Transit Introduction is on grades 3-8, while Transit Math challenges grades 5-12. "The problems were created to be authentic glimpses of www.bsd-berlin.de modern science and engineering issues, often involving actual research data...The problems were designed to be ‘one-pagers’ with a detailed Answer Key as a second page."

Six introductory math puzzlers about the frequency of transits, how far Venus is from earth, and the distance from earth to the sun (Astronomical Unit); from Dr. Sten Odenwald, NASA.

inclined.jpg (23247 bytes) http://transitofvenus.nl/wp/2012/02/16/pattern-on-a-paper-plate/
Hands-on activity that illustrates and explains the frequency of transits of Venus using simple paper plates.  Now available as PDF file with illustrations, improved from original posting at http://analyzer.depaul.edu/paperplate/Transit%20of%20Venus/transit_frequency.htm.

Transiting exoplanet activity image from workbookhttp://transitofvenus.nl/wp/2011/11/08/classroom-activities/
Free workbook (http://www.transitofvenus.nl/files/TransitOfVenus.pdf) from Steven van Roode addresses the frequency of the transit of Venus, angular measurements, parallax measurements to establish distances, and finding the cheap viagra canadian physical properties of exoplanets from light curves.  Also available as hard copy.

Pixel Count Activity is modification from Steven van Roode's workbook in which student plots the decrease in light received from a star that has a planet transiting it.

Diagram for calculating the Astronomical Unit: from David Sternhttp://www-istp.gsfc.nasa.gov/stargaze/Svenus1.htm
The Transit of Venus --Halley's Method of Deriving the Astronomical Unit (AU); from Dr. David P. Stern.

The Astronomical Unit from differential astrometry of the 2004 Transit of Venus? by Daniel Fischer.  "Based on a handful of medium-quality photographs of the full solar disk taken during the 2004 transit of Venus, a first attempt to derive the AU by relative astrometry to two sunspots in AR 627 is made."

A tutorial on the transit of Venus as a technique for measuring solar parallax and i use it levitra cheap quantifying the Astronomical Unit; excerpts with illustrations from the book "The Transit of Venus & the Quest for the Solar Parallax" by David Sellers.

Measure the distance to the sun by knowing only your location (lat/long) and the time(s) of internal contact.  That is, "compute the www.way2age.com mean equatorial solar parallax online from your own and others’ observations of best dose for daily cialis the 2004 transit of Venus, employing either Halley’s or Delisle’s method."  This is the easiest method for casual observers to quantify the distance to the sun from their own data..

Fig 1http://www.astronomy.org.gg/venustransitsb.htm
An explanation of the frequency of Venus transits by Peter M. Langford.

Venustransit 2004: Calculation of the Solar Parallax from Observations by Heinz Blatter.  Detailed math "gives an overview of the geometry and temporal patterns of transits, a rough estimate of the solar parallax and the corresponding error estimate. The possible and necessary corrections due to the rotation of the Earth, the eccentricities of paradigms.com.do the orbits of Venus and Earth and the inclination of the orbit of Venus are given as well."

[IMAGE: Calculation of PP']http://www.phy6.org/stargaze/Svenus2.htm
"Approximate calculation of the AU based on the June 8 transit of Venus, meant for the level of high school or beginning college and uses only algebra and click here viagra for cheap simple trigonometry. It only relies on simulated data--specifically, predicted times of 2nd and 3rd contact for Cairo and Durban;" from David P. Stern.

Poster on the 1999 transit of Mercury "definitively solves the problem of the black-drop effect that plagued past transits of Venus;" by Jay Pasachoff, Glenn Schneider and Leon Golub; from the American Astronomical Society's Division of discount propecia online Planetary Science meeting in 2001.


Jay Pasachoff's site links to transit of Venus interests.

An observing program whose purpose is "to coordinate and direct a cooperative observational effort which will allow experienced amateur astronomers and small college observatories to discover transiting extrasolar planets."  To observe transiting planets around distant stars, you need a telescope with an accurate clock drive, a CCD camera, and appropriate computer software.  Observers who obtain photometry of known transiting planets can submit their light curves.  The transitsearch.org site currently functions primarily as an ephemeris information service.

The Systemic Weblog, written by Greg Laughlin, reports recent developments in the field of extrasolar planets, with a particular focus on observational and theoretical astronomical research work.  Tutorials show how to use the Systemic Console, a program that "uses an intuitive graphical interface to analyze data in order to detect and www.animationnation.com characterize planets."

"The Transit of Venus" by David Murray; from December 8, 1874, Scribner's.
"Astronomy, The Transit of Venus" by Gillet and Rolfe, 1882.

Detailed math excerpted from Robert Stawell Ball's Treatise on Spherical Astronomy, 1908, addresses the conditions under which a transit takes place; variations of the sun's path as seen from different points on the earth; and both Halley's and De Lisle's methods for applying a transit of Venus to determine the Astronomical Unit (A.U.)

Formulas and data to show how to calculate whether the only here united healthcare cialis transit is visible from any given location; from Fred Espenak.

Calculation engines for C / C++ programmers, astronomers and anyone else interested in calculating positions of astronomical objects; from free software libnova, a general purpose, double precision, astronomical calculation library.

Venus in X-ray; images by Chandra observatory.

Venus page from NSSDC (National Space Science Data Center); includes missions, data on CD ROM, and links.

Photo gallery of Venus; from NSSDC.

Magellan mission to Venus.

Three-part series on the Soviet and American exploration of Venus, appearing in the electronic Journal of buying cialis next day delivery the Astronomical Society of the Atlantic; by Larry Klaes.

"Pi, Phi, and the Pentacle" features the five-point pattern derived from the aligning orbits of Venus and earth; from Glenn R. Smith.

Using parallax to measure distance; from University of Central Lancashire.

NASA Connect offers lessons and exercises on scaling the solar system.

The Solar parallax with the transit of Venus "shows how one can derive the timing of the four contacts of Venus with the sun disk as a function of the location of the observer and of cialis no prescription the solar parallax with a relatively simple approximate formula whose accuracy is sufficient to process the observations of a network of observers. Two models are discussed."  From F. Mignard.

Parralax math, by gamers.

CompStar Conference in Tahiti - June 4-8, 2012, Arue (Tahiti), French Polynesiahttp://www.compstar-esf.org/index.php?section=news&nid=35
Compact Star conference to be held in Tahiti - June 4-8, 2012, Arue (Tahiti), French Polynesia

Logo: Venus Twilight Experimenthttps://venustex.oca.eu/foswiki
Venus Twilight Experiment writes: "During ingress and egress a bright and http://www.umlauf.de/info-levitra thin luminous arc (the "aureole") is observable, appearing around the circumference of Venus’ disk which is partially outside the solar limb...Farther away from the Sun, the aureole - due to light refraction - disappears and Venus shines from the light diffused by droplets dispersed above its thick cloud deck.The Venus Twilight Experiment is establishing an international collaboration for deploying specialized instruments in the transit visibility area to get multi-wavelength data...Our final aims are a better characterization of these twilight phenomena and - in turn - an improved undestarding of the atmosphere of Venus, jointly with the observations obtained by Venus Express, the probe now orbiting the order discount cialis online planet."

Venus Transit Conference Tromsø 2012, a conference focusing on the history of the transits of Venus, 2-3 June 2012.



Poster with 2012 Transit of Venus sans June date (Click here to download hi-res poster)  Spread the word about events related to the 2012 transit of Venus.  You may print these high resolution PDF documents (~32 MB) into a 24x36 inch poster (or smaller), then put your own announcement in the bottom two white banners.  This window is reminiscent of cheap levitra online the stained glass window in St. Michael's Church, which honors its church member Jeremiah Horrocks.  See also Activity: Create Your Own Stained Glass Window for ways to incorporate the window into an activity. 

The posters below specify the dates June 5 or June 6 above the year 2012, whereas the main 2012 poster, above, simply has 2012. 

Read more: Posters


Video: The Transit of Venus

Transit of Venus Stained Glass Window CollageThe Transit of Venus is a 4-minute video in high-resolution soon to be a free download in full-dome video for digital theaters. The mini-show summarizes the history and significance of the transit of Venus while preparing viewers for the June 5-6, 2012, spectacle.  The story segues from Jeremiah Horrocks' first sighting, to expeditions seeking to measure the size of the solar system, to the Kepler spacecraft detecting planets as they transit distant stars.

With animation and video effects by Patrick McPike, Multimedia Artist and Technical Director at the Adler Planetarium, the dome master is readily compatible with full-dome digital theaters.  The original song Morning Star by the band Transit of Venus from New Zealand is also available for free download.  Narrated by Douglas Osthimer.  Written and directed by Chuck Bueter.