Links: Science & Math

Mathematical Problems Featuring Transit Applications, by Dr. Sten Odenwald.
Mathematical Problems Featuring Transit Applications, by Dr. Sten Odenwald.  Transit Math book from NASA opens with dozens of price of cialis math problems and answers related to levitra 6 free samples eclipses, transits, and occultations, with an emphasis on transits of Venus through the centuries.  Problems align with AAAS Project: 2061 Benchmarks as detailed in a Mathematics Topic Matrix. The PDF document includes summaries of the historic aspects of the transit and a diverse collection of modern images and historic images alike.  Stated emphasis for Transit Introduction is on grades 3-8, while Transit Math challenges grades 5-12. "The problems were created to be authentic glimpses of modern science and engineering issues, often involving actual research data...The problems were designed to be ‘one-pagers’ with a detailed Answer Key as a second page."

Six introductory math puzzlers about the low cost cialis frequency of transits, how far Venus is from earth, and the distance from earth to the sun (Astronomical Unit); from Dr. Sten Odenwald, NASA.

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Hands-on activity that illustrates and explains the frequency of transits of Venus using simple paper plates.  Now available as PDF file with illustrations, improved from original posting at

Transiting exoplanet activity image from workbook
Free workbook ( from Steven van Roode addresses the frequency of the transit of viagra 25mg uk Venus, angular measurements, parallax measurements to establish distances, and finding the physical properties of exoplanets from light curves.  Also available as hard copy.

Pixel Count Activity is modification from Steven van Roode's workbook in which student plots the decrease in light received from a star that has a planet transiting it.

Diagram for calculating the Astronomical Unit: from David Stern
The Transit of Venus --Halley's Method of Deriving the soft levitra Astronomical Unit (AU); from Dr. David P. Stern.
The Astronomical Unit from differential astrometry of the 2004 Transit of Venus? by Daniel Fischer.  "Based on a handful of medium-quality photographs of the full solar disk taken during the 2004 transit of Venus, a first attempt to derive the AU by relative astrometry to two sunspots in AR 627 is made."
A tutorial on the transit of Venus as a technique for measuring solar parallax and quantifying the Astronomical Unit; excerpts with illustrations from the book "The Transit of Venus & the Quest for the Solar Parallax" by David Sellers.

Measure the distance to levitra 100mg the sun by knowing only your location (lat/long) and the time(s) of internal contact.  That is, "compute the cialis 6 free samples mean equatorial solar parallax online from your own and others’ observations of the 2004 transit of Venus, employing either Halley’s or Delisle’s method."  This is the easiest method for casual observers to quantify the distance to the sun from their own data..

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An explanation of order prescription viagra the frequency of Venus transits by Peter M. Langford.
Venustransit 2004: Calculation of the Solar Parallax from Observations by Heinz Blatter.  Detailed math "gives an overview of the geometry and inexpensive levitra temporal patterns of transits, a rough estimate of the solar parallax and the corresponding error estimate. The possible and necessary corrections due to the rotation of the Earth, the eccentricities of the orbits of try it soft gel levitra Venus and Earth and the inclination of the orbit of Venus are given as well."

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"Approximate calculation of the AU based on the June 8 transit of Venus, meant for the level of high school or beginning college and uses only algebra and simple trigonometry. It only relies on site about tramadol simulated data--specifically, predicted times of 2nd and 3rd contact for Cairo and viagra for sale site Durban;" from David P. Stern.
Poster on the 1999 transit of Mercury "definitively solves the problem of the black-drop effect that plagued past transits of Venus;" by Jay Pasachoff, Glenn Schneider and Leon Golub; from the American Astronomical Society's Division of Planetary Science meeting in 2001.

Jay Pasachoff's site links to transit of Venus interests.
An observing program whose purpose is "to coordinate and direct a cooperative observational effort which will allow experienced amateur astronomers and small college observatories to discover transiting extrasolar planets."  To observe transiting planets around distant stars, you need a telescope with an accurate clock drive, a CCD camera, and appropriate computer software.  Observers who obtain photometry of cheapest cialis edrugstore known transiting planets can submit their light curves.  The site currently functions primarily as an ephemeris information service.
The Systemic Weblog, written by Greg Laughlin, reports recent developments in the field of extrasolar planets, with a particular focus on observational and theoretical astronomical research work.  Tutorials show how to use the Systemic Console, a program that "uses an intuitive graphical interface to analyze data in order to detect and characterize planets."
"The Transit of Venus" by David Murray; from December 8, 1874, Scribner's.
"Astronomy, The Transit of Venus" by Gillet and Rolfe, 1882.

Detailed math excerpted from Robert Stawell Ball's Treatise on Spherical Astronomy, 1908, addresses the conditions under which a transit takes place; variations of the sun's path as seen from different points on the earth; and both Halley's and De Lisle's methods for applying a transit of Venus to viagra prescription low cost determine the click here viagra to order Astronomical Unit (A.U.)
Formulas and canada cialis no prescription data to show how to calculate whether the transit is visible from any given location; from Fred Espenak.
Calculation engines for C / C++ programmers, astronomers and anyone else interested in calculating positions of astronomical objects; from free software libnova, a general purpose, double precision, astronomical calculation library.
Venus in X-ray; images by Chandra observatory.
Venus page from NSSDC (National Space Science Data Center); includes missions, data on CD ROM, and links.
Photo gallery of Venus; from NSSDC.
Magellan mission to Venus.
Three-part series on the Soviet and American exploration of Venus, appearing in the electronic Journal of the Astronomical Society of the Atlantic; by Larry Klaes.
"Pi, Phi, and the Pentacle" features the five-point pattern derived from the aligning orbits of Venus and earth; from Glenn R. Smith.
Using parallax to measure distance; from University of Central Lancashire.
NASA Connect offers lessons and exercises on scaling the solar system.
The Solar parallax with the transit of Venus "shows how one can derive the timing of the four contacts of Venus with the sun disk as a function of the location of the observer and of the solar parallax with a relatively simple approximate formula whose accuracy is sufficient to process the observations of a network of observers. Two models are discussed."  From F. Mignard.
Parralax math, by gamers.

CompStar Conference in Tahiti - June 4-8, 2012, Arue (Tahiti), French Polynesia
Compact Star conference to be held in Tahiti - June 4-8, 2012, Arue (Tahiti), French Polynesia

Logo: Venus Twilight Experiment
Venus Twilight Experiment writes: "During ingress and egress a bright and thin luminous arc (the "aureole") is observable, appearing around the circumference of Venus’ disk which is partially outside the solar limb...Farther away from the Sun, the aureole - due to light refraction - disappears and Venus shines from the light diffused by droplets dispersed above its thick cloud deck.The Venus Twilight Experiment is establishing an international collaboration for deploying specialized instruments in the transit visibility area to wow)) cialis online canada get multi-wavelength data...Our final aims are a better characterization of these twilight phenomena and generic levitra purchase - in turn - an improved undestarding of the atmosphere of Venus, jointly with the observations obtained by Venus Express, the probe now orbiting the planet."
Venus Transit Conference Tromsø 2012, a conference focusing on the history of the transits of Venus, 2-3 June 2012.